Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are considered serious damaging on the global cereals production systems. The current study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of PPNs in the main cereal-growing areas in northern Kazakhstan. PPNs were detected in about 90% of 78 soil samples and thirteen genera were identified, including Pratylenchus, Heterodera, Geocenamus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchoides, and Tylenchorhynchus. Out of the 78 samples, 32 samples were found infested by Heterodera filipjevi based on the morphological and molecular analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on this cereal cyst nematode species in northern Kazakhstan. During the morphological and molecular assays, intraspecific polymorphism was observed within H. filipjevi populations and the populations divided into at least two groups. The highest frequency of infestation of H. filipjevi (76%) was recorded from Kokshetau Province when compared to other provinces: Astana (50%), Petropavl (37%), and Kostanay (16%). The highest number of cysts (30.4) was found among Astana samples while the lowest number of cysts (18.2) was recorded from Kostanay samples. Cyst nematodes can maintain their population above the economic threshold as stimulated by the cereal monoculture system (mainly wheat) which is similar to the cereal production systems of northern Kazakhstan.